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Posts Tagged ‘Nodding Burr Marigold’

I’m still seeing wildflowers but this will most likely be the last post this season that is devoted entirely to them.

1. Spotted Knapweed

Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) might be a hated invasive but with such a beautiful flower it’s hard not to forgive it. This plant is native to Europe and Asia and was accidentally imported in a hay seed shipment in the late 1800s. One reason it is disliked is because it releases a toxin that can hinder and prevent the growth of neighboring species. It grows in all but 5 states.

2. Small Flowered Aster

Small flower white aster (Symphyotrichum racemosum) is a curious little plant that gets knee high at best but makes up for shortness by packing every stem with as many small white flowers as possible. Another name for this plant is fragile stem American aster, because its stems are brittle and break easily. Some websites say that this plant can reach six feet tall, but I’ve never seen it more than two.

3. Small Flowered Aster

One good way to identify small flower white aster is by the way its flowers all crowd onto one side of the stem. The flowers are small-maybe a half inch across. For some unknown reason the USDA doesn’t list this aster as one that grows in New Hampshire, but I see it everywhere.

 4. Jimson Weed

Jimson weed (Datura stramonium) is in the nightshade family and all parts of the plant are toxic to humans and livestock. Taken in small enough doses the plant is hallucinogenic, as British soldiers found out when they included Jimsonweed leaves in salad in Jamestown, Virginia in 1676. They were high for 11 days and had to be penned up to prevent them from hurting themselves. When the symptoms wore off they remembered nothing. You can read about the incident by clicking here.

 5. Jimson Weed Fruit

Jimson weed has many common names, one of which is thorn apple. The unripe seed pod in this photo shows how that name came about.

 6. Nodding Burr Marigold aka Bidens cernua

Nodding bur marigold (Bidens cernua) is a very late bloomer, often blooming just before frost. It is an annual plant that has to grow from seed each year so that might explain its late blooming time. As they age the flower heads nod down toward the ground. I find this plant growing on river bans. Mallards are said to love its seeds.

 7. Pink Turtlehead

Rose turtlehead (Chelone oblique) is very similar to pink turtlehead (Chelone lyonii), but this plant grows about a foot shorter and its flowers are a darker shade of pink. A friend gave me a piece of her plant many years ago and it still grows in my garden, getting morning sun and afternoon shade, with virtually no maintenance. All I’ve ever done with this plant is give pieces of it away and it blooms beautifully each fall.

8. Perennial Sow Thistle aka Sonchus arvensis

Sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus) flowers look a lot like dandelions, but the rest of the plant doesn’t. Its flowers are held about 2 feet high on wiry stems, and its leaves have prickly edges. The seed heads look a bit like a dandelion seed head but are denser because of more seeds. This plant is considered a noxious weed in many places and comes from Europe and Asia. It was first reported in Pennsylvania in 1814 and is now in all but 8 states and most of Canada.

9. Self Heal

Heal all (Prunella vulgaris) is still blooming. Its tiny purple flowers always remind me of orchids. Heal all has been used medicinally since ancient times. It was once thought to be a holy herb sent by God to cure man’s ills and is still sold for medicinal use. Native Americans used it as a food and a medicine.

10. Deptford Pink aka Dianthus armeria

For a while this year I thought that black eyed Susan’s (Rudbeckia hirta) must be the longest blooming wildflower but I have since remembered that there are many others that bloom as long or longer. Deptford pinks (Dianthus armeria) like those in the photo start blooming much earlier than black eyed Susans, and are still blooming.

11. Red Clover

Red clover is another season long bloomer. This one was lighter pink than many I see. Clover first came to North America with the English settlers. Native Americans took to the plant immediately and found many uses for it. It has been used medicinally for centuries-since before recorded history, some say.

12. New England Aster

New England aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae) flowers can be so many different shades of pink and purple that you have to wonder sometimes if they’re even the same plant. These plants own the roadsides now and in many areas are the only flower seen blooming. Asters don’t like hot dry weather and will start to lose leaves unless it is cool and moist-like it usually is in autumn in New England. This is the largest flowered aster, with most of its flowers about the size of a 25 cent piece.

13. Dark Colored Aster

This dark flowered New England aster shows the wide color range that can be found in this plant. It seems like for every thousand light colored flowers I find one dark colored one. One day I watched a bunch of bumblebees swarming around both light and dark colored flowers that grew side by side and the bees visited the lighter colors much more than the dark ones. That might help explain why there are more light colored plants than dark ones.

 14. Witch Hazel

Last winter the witch hazels (Hamamelis virginiana) along the river bloomed well into January. This year they are off to an early start. Extracts of its leaves, twigs, and bark have been used medicinally for centuries and witch hazel preparations can still be found in drug stores today. I remember my father using a witch hazel ointment on his hands.

The flower that smells the sweetest is shy and lowly. ~William Wordsworth

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When I was a professional gardener I always assumed that we would have a frost between September 15th and September 30th. More years than not, that assumption was accurate. Then last year happened and all of that went out the window. We still hadn’t had a frost when we got about sixteen inches of snow on Halloween. This year-here we go again-still no frost here. In fact just yesterday it reached the mid-70s.  The heat I can handle, but I’m hoping there won’t be another Halloween storm like the last. In any case, the flowers love it and many are still blooming.

This nodding burr marigold (Bidens) found a home with a roof, so it won’t have to worry about a frost.

 On a recent rainy day I found a clump of native beechdrops (Epifagus virginiana) growing near the road. The Epifagus part of the scientific name means “upon the beech” and that is where these parasitic plants grow. They don’t produce chlorophyll to make their own food so instead they insert a root like structure called a haustorium into a beech root and take what nutrition they need to survive. Native Americans made a tea from this plant that was used to treat mouth sores.

Purple-brownish beechdrop flowers are very small and hard to photograph. Each flower is tubular and has two lip-like “petals.” They produce nectar and attract insects. Tiny, scale like leaves press flat against the stem and are very hard to see. These plants are found from Canada to Florida and west as far as Louisianna. 

Native Blue toadflax (Linaria Canadensis) is another tiny flower, but easier to get a picture of than beechdrops. I found this one growing in full sun on a riverbank recently. It had just about finished blooming. This plant resembles Kalm’s Lobelia (Lobelia kalmia) but the lobelia lacks the nectar spurs found in blue toadflax blossoms. Toadflax boiled in milk is said to make an excellent fly poison.

 Native small flowered water plantain (Alisma subcordatum) was also blooming along the river a couple of weeks ago. The blossoms have now faded but the plants still thrive. These small white flowers have only tree petals so they are hard to confuse with other plants. The egg shaped, thick, fleshy leaves are also unusual. There is also a large water plantain (Alisma triviale) with flowers that are about twice the size as those shown. These plants often grow in the water at the edges of ponds and rivers. Native Americans used to eat the dried root. 

It’s easy, especially at this time of year, to be fooled into thinking that this plant is an aster, but it is actually a chrysanthemum-another popular fall garden plant. I found this one growing in a local park. Its leaves give away its identity.

This is an aster that I found growing on the side of the road. I turned around and went back to get a picture because it was such a deep, dark and beautiful purple-much different than the lighter purple varieties seen.

 This jimson weed (Datura stramonium) is another roadside plant, but it was growing in a pasture along with hundreds of others. Jimson weed is considered poisonous to both humans and livestock so I was surprised to see it in a cow pasture.  This hallucinogenic plant in the nightshade family is also called loco weed and was used by Native Americans on spiritual quests. The original common name was “Jamestown weed” which was given to it after English soldiers in the Jamestown colony began to behave oddly after eating leaves of the plant. It is said that they “behaved like animals for several days.”  This plant is considered exceedingly dangerous due to poisonings and deaths by people trying to get high.

 I have a white flowered native obedient (Physostegia virginiana) plant trying to overtake my gardens and not too long ago someone posted a picture of a beautiful pinkish purplish one like the one in this photo. I told the blogger that I hadn’t ever seen that color obedient plant flower and then, that very day, I found this one. It seems like if I can’t find a plant all I need to do is say that I can’t find it on this blog and before you know it, I’ve found one. That has happened several times.

Red clover (Trifolium pretense) is looking a little bedraggled, but still blooms just about everywhere I go. Native Americans made a tea from the plant for use as, among other things, a cough syrup. Today scientists are researching its value as a cancer treatment and for respiratory ailments.

 I wasn’t surprised to find sand jointweed (Polygonella articulata) growing in pure sand along an old road but I was surprised to see it at all, because I had been watching for it for 2 or 3 weeks without any luck. These plants grow to about a foot tall but the thin, wiry stems and small white flowers easily blend into the sand and make them hard to see.  The leaves are small and lie against the stem so the plant appears leafless. The plant gets its name from the way the stems are jointed.

These sand jointweed (Polygonella articulata) flowers looked like they had a bit of pink in them. These plants seem very hard to photograph-I had to make 2 or 3 attempts before I got something I could live with.

 

It’s easy to see why sedum is such a hit in the fall. This pink one I found in a local park is probably a cultivar called “Autumn Joy, “which is an old favorite. I think it would be even more beautiful planted with some dark purple asters.

 When I took its picture I thought this was the last rose of summer that I’d see on my rose bushes. They had a hard time this year with the extreme heat and dryness, but once the rains started in they bloomed more and more until now they are loaded with blossoms. Last year it was still blooming in December.

Listen! The wind is rising, and the air is wild with leaves,

We have had our summer evenings, now for October eves ~ Humbert Wolfe

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There are still flowers blooming now and some of them, like asters, goldenrods and an occasional Joe Pye weed are quite showy. Most of them though, are very small and not showy at all. In fact it’s easy to walk right by a lot of them without even seeing them. Here are a few of the showy and not so showy. The blue flowers crowded on one side of the long stem give away the identity of creeping bellflower (Campanula rapunculoides.) This plant was introduced as an ornamental from Europe and has escaped to dry places that get full sun. This is a late bloomer but is usually finished by the time goldenrods have their biggest flush of bloom.  It is an invasive plant that is hard to get rid of once it has become established and will choke out weaker native plants.I didn’t need to crush a leaf and smell it to know this was wild mint (Mentha arvensis)-the flowers told me that-but I did anyway because I like the scent of fresh mint.  I found this plant growing in a semi shaded area in moist soil. I was surprised to find it in a nice, tidy clump instead of taking over the whole area. Mint is famous for spreading quickly, which is why it doesn’t make a good plant for the garden.Sweet everlasting (Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium) isn’t a close relative of pearly everlasting (Anaphalis margaritacea) but the flowers look somewhat alike. That’s most likely because they are both in the Aster family. Sweet everlasting has flower buds that are much narrower than those on pearly everlasting. These flowers are slow to open-I waited for them for close to two weeks before giving up and snapping this picture. Everlastings get their name from the way they last a long time as a cut flower. These white plants are easy to see against the browning grasses of fall. European native butter and eggs (Linaria vulgaris) bloomed for a while and then stopped, and now it’s blooming again. This yellow toadflax has a flower that is much larger and showier than any blue toadflax that I’ve seen. These flowers resemble snapdragons and last a long time as a cut flower. I think it’s one of the most beautiful weeds that I know of. Though books say they are common, I never saw a bicolor turtlehead flower (Chelone glabra) until I found this white one with a touch of plum colored blush on each flower. I grow one in my garden that is almost the same pinkish / lavender color, but over the entire flower. These plants like moist soil and will grow in sun or shade. This wild one gets a lot of hot afternoon sun and the plant I grow in my garden gets only an hour or two of morning sun. Both seem to do equally well.Carpet weed (Mollugo verticillata) is easy to recognize because of its whorled leaves, small white flowers, and ground hugging habit. This small weed grows very fast and in no time at all can cover quite a large piece of ground in a mat which has taken root at every leaf node. This plant originated in tropical America and is an annual, which means it grows new from seed each year.Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) was brought to Europe from Japan sometime around 1829. It was taken to Holland and grown in nurseries that sold it as an ornamental. From there it found its way across the Atlantic where we still do battle with it today. It is one of the most invasive weeds known and the only plant I have ever seen overtake it is purple loosestrife, which is also an invasive weed. Japanese knotweed is also a tough plant-the one shown in the photo was burned black right back to the ground last spring during an April frost and I thought for sure it was finished. As you can see, I was wrong. Nodding bur marigold (Bidens cernua) is unusually showy for a late summer /early fall wildflower. These native plants like to grow in wet soil and are common at the edges of rivers and ponds-I have even seen them growing in water. They really put on a show because there aren’t many other large yellow wildflowers blooming at this time. A nodding burr marigold (Bidens cernua) flower. This plant is also called beggar’s ticks because of the way its seeds stick to clothing. This plant is easily confused with Bidens laevis, the southern bur marigold. The late blooming period, serrated, hairless leaves and flowers that nod down toward the ground help with the identification of this plant.American water Horehound (Lycopus americanus) has clusters of tiny white flowers that ring the stem at the leaf axils. These small blooms never seem to all be open at the same time. This plant is easily confused with Northern bugleweed (Lycopus uniflorus) and wild mint (Mentha arvensis) which both blossom at the same time. Crushing and smelling a leaf will easily confirm that it isn’t wild mint. Northern bugleweed doesn’t have lower leaves that are deeply lobed like those on American water horehound, so deeply lobed lower leaves that don’t smell like mint are what to look for when trying to find this plant. All three like to grow near water. The Ancient Greeks believed that the goddess of love Aphrodite created marjoram as a symbol of happiness. They made wreaths out of the mild herb for marriage and funeral ceremonies. Marjoram (Origanum majorana) is a native of Asia and is closely related to oregano (Origanum vulgare.) It is easily confused with oregano but has a much milder flavor. Its leaves are also grayer and slightly hairier than those of oregano. You can find both growing in the wild occasionally.

What is a weed? A plant whose virtues have never been discovered~ Ralph Waldo Emerson

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